Geological Structures and Maps

Geological Structures
and Maps
Geological Structures
and Maps
Third edition
Cardiff University

Geological Maps 
 Uniformly Dipping Beds 
 Igneous Rocks 
 Folding with Cleavage
Further Reading


GEOLOGICAL maps represent the expression on the earth’s
surface of the underlying geological structure. For this
reason the ability to correctly interpret the relationships
displayed on a geological map relies heavily on a knowledge
of the basic principles of structural geology.
This book discusses, from first principles up to and
including first-year undergraduate level, the morphology of
the most important types of geological structures, and
relates them to their manifestation on geological maps.
Although the treatment of structures is at an elementary
level, care has been taken to define terms rigorously and in
a way that is in keeping with current professional usage. All
too often concepts such as ‘asymmetrical fold’, ‘fold axis’
and ‘cylindrical fold’ explained in first textbooks have to be
re-learned ‘correctly’ at university level.
Photographs of structures in the field are included to
emphasize the similarities between structures at outcrop
scale and on the scale of the map. Ideally, actual fieldwork
experience should be gained in parallel with this course.
The book is designed, as far as possible, to be read
without tutorial help. Worked examples are given to assist
with the solution of the exercises. Emphasis is placed
throughout on developing the skill of three-dimensional
visualization so important to the geologist.
In the choice of the maps for the exercises, an attempt
has been made to steer a middle course between the
artificial-looking idealized type of ‘problem map’ and real
survey maps. The latter can initially overwhelm the
student with the sheer amount of data presented. Many of
the exercises are based closely on selected ‘extracts’ from
actual maps.
I am grateful to the late Professor T.R. Owen who
realized the need for a book with this scope and encouraged
me to write it. Peter Henn and Catherine Shephard of
Pergamon Books are thanked for their help and patience.
Thanks are also due to Vivienne Jenkins and Wendy
Johnson for providing secretarial help, and to my wife Ann
for her support.

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